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SkinVite clinical studies

Independent ingredient review

There are a vast number of clinical studies over the last few decades that have shown the effectiveness of the ingredients found in SkinVite. Our clinical research team has compiled several of these studies with the results so that you can find out for yourself that the ingredients in SkinVite can help support rosacea and acne symptoms.

Vitamin A (as Beta-Carotene)

Propionibacterium acnes induces an interleukin-17 response in acne vulgaris that is regulated by vitamin A and vitamin D

"Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder affecting millions of people worldwide and inflammation resulting from the immune response targeting Propionibacterium acnes plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that P. acnes is a potent inducer of Th17 and Th1, but not Th2 responses in human PBMCs. P. acnes stimulated expression of key Th17-related genes, including IL-17A, RORα, RORc, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, and triggered IL-17 secretion from CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells. Supernatants from P. acnes-stimulated PBMCs were sufficient to promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+CD45RA T cells into Th17 cells. Furthermore, we found that the combination of IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β neutralizing antibodies completely inhibited P. acnes-induced IL-17 production. Importantly, we showed that IL-17-expressing cells were present in skin biopsies from acne patients but not from normal donors. Finally, vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) inhibited P. acnes-induced Th17 differentiation. Together, our data demonstrate that IL-17 is induced by P. acnes and expressed in acne lesions and that both vitamin A and vitamin D could be effective tools to modulate Th17-mediated diseases such as acne."


Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Angioprotectors in the treatment of rosacea

"Rosacea - a common chronic inflammatory dermatosis (3-10% of all dermatoses) primarily affecting the skin of face. Numerous methods for the treatment of rosacea are defined by the diversity of etiologic and pathogenic factors of dermatosis, its stage and clinical form. But a significant role in its development, most researchers relate to vascular disturbances. It is suggested that vascular changes in this disease are the product of two interrelated pathological processes: the disturbances in integrity and tone of the vascular wall and disorganization of perivascular connective tissue. The results of these processes are formation of a stable dilatation of skin blood vessels clinically manifested by erythema and telangiectasia. Based on foregoing, The aim of this study was evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of Rutin Forte in complex treatment and prevention of rosacea. 30 patients with an erythematous stage of rosacea were under observation (20 women and 10 men) aged 25 to 50 years. The first group (15 patients) was treated by the standard procedure (Antibiotics, systemic metronidazole, antihistamines, traditional external therapy). Patients of the second group (15 people) additionally received a Rutin Forte containing long-acting vitamin C, zinc and selenium. The drug was administered at a dose of 2 capsule per day. Duration of treatment - 2 to 3 months. Observation period after treatment were 12 months. During this period we revealed a significant reduction of erythema, recurrence of disease in the second group of patients was not observed, but in the group of comparison recurrences were detected on 3rd month of follow up and the degree of erythema reduction was significantly less. Thus, the study revealed that Rutin Forte is an effective means for the treatment and prevention of the torpid relapsing forms of rosacea on erythematous stage of dermatosis."


Vitamin K (as Menaquinone-7)

The Evaluation of the Efficacy of Derivatives of Vitamin K

"Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of cosmetic products containing two derivatives of vitamin K on skin with vascular problems. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in two groups, 24 people, and the other included 22 participants, mean age 50. The participants applied creams twice a day for a period of 4 weeks. Creams were applied on the right half of the face-concentration of 0.5% and 0.1%-on the left. The participants completed a questionnaire and a measurement was performed using standardized equipment Multi Probe Adapter (MPA) Courage-Khazaka and VISIA Canfield. Results: Application creams with MQ and Epoxy MQ derivatives at a concentration of 0.1% and 0.5% had the effect of reducing redness of the skin at a comparable level. All of formulations did not contribute to decrease melanin level. The hydration was increased after application MQ (0.1% and 0.5%) adequately 14% and 13% in about 60% participants. The elasticity was significantly improved in all groups. Conclusion: Derivatives of vitamin K such as Epoxy MQ and MQ used in 0.1% and 0.5% give comparable results reducing redness of the skin. The improvement of erythema was more significant with 0.1% concentration (MQ and Epoxy MQ)."


Niacin (as Niacinamide)

Pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions: a review

"Various skin disorders with an inflammatory component often have been treated with steroids and/or oral antibiotics. However, long-term use of these agents has drawbacks: steroids may induce numerous serious side effects such as hypertension, immunosuppression, and osteoporosis, and overuse of oral antibiotics may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance, as well as to a host of nuisance side effects such as diarrhea, yeast infections, and photosensitivity. As a result, alternative oral treatments, such as nicotinamide, have been investigated. During the past 50 years, many clinical reports have identified nicotinamide as a beneficial agent in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory skin disorders; what's more, its exceptional safety profile at pharmacologic doses makes it a potentially ideal long-term oral therapy for patients with inflammatory skin diseases. A recent large study evaluating nicotinamide for the treatment of acne or rosacea has confirmed the potential benefits of oral nicotinamide as an alternative approach to managing inflammatory lesions associated with acne vulgaris and acne rosacea. This article reviews the substantial number of reports published over the past 50 years that document the clinical utility and safety of oral and topical formulations of nicotinamide for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory skin conditions."


"Nicotinamide and the skin Andrew C Chen 1, Diona L Damian"

"Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers."


Zinc (as Zinc Picolinate)

The role of zinc in the treatment of acne: A review of the literature

"Acne vulgaris is a chronic disease of the pilosebaceous units presenting as inflammatory or noninflammatory lesions in individuals of all ages. The current standard of treatment includes topical formulations in the forms of washes, gels, lotions, and creams such as antibiotics, antibacterial agents, retinoids, and comedolytics. Additionally, systemic treatments are available for more severe or resistant forms of acne. Nevertheless, these treatments have shown to induce a wide array of adverse effects, including dryness, peeling, erythema, and even fetal defects and embolic events. Zinc is a promising alternative to other acne treatments owing to its low cost, efficacy, and lack of systemic side effects. In this literature review, we evaluate the effectiveness and side-effect profiles of various formulations of zinc used to treat acne."


A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of lactoferrin with vitamin E and zinc as an oral therapy for mild to moderate acne vulgaris

"Lactoferrin is an iron-binding milk-derived protein that has shown antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of lactoferrin, combined with vitamin E and zinc, for mild to moderate acne vulgaris. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 168 subjects aged 13-40 years old were randomly assigned to take either a capsule formulation containing lactoferrin with vitamin E and zinc or placebo twice a day for 3 months. The primary outcome measure was a reduction in the number of acne lesions compared to placebo. A total of 164 subjects completed the study per protocol. The lactoferrin group (n = 82) showed a significant median percent reduction in total lesions as early as 2 weeks (14.5%, P = 0.0120), with the maximum reduction occurring at week 10 (28.5%, P < 0.0001) compared to placebo group (n = 82). Maximum reduction in comedones (32.5%, P < 0.0001) and inflammatory lesions (44%, P < 0.0001) was also seen at week 10 compared to placebo. Sebum scores were improved by week 12. No adverse events were observed during the trial. A twice daily regimen of lactoferrin with vitamin E and zinc significantly reduced acne lesions in people with mild to moderate acne vulgaris.


Copper (as Cupric Oxide)

Significance of Serum Copper Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

"Introduction: Acne vulgaris is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. Aim: To evaluate the role of serum copper levels in acne. Materials and Methods: Around 50 young female patients, aged between 13 to 19 years, suffering from Acne vulgaris (patients group) and 25 age matched healthy female attenders of patients without acne (control group). The copper levels were measured in the serum obtained from the fasting blood of patients group and control group. Results: Serum copper levels were in the normal range but lower than those of control subjects. Conclusion: Low serum copper levels could be one among the causes of acne."


Using Copper to Improve the Well-Being of the Skin

"Copper has two key properties that are being exploited in consumer and medical device products in the last decade. On the one hand, copper has potent biocidal properties. On the other hand, copper is involved in numerous physiological and metabolic processes critical for the appropriate functioning of almost all tissues in the human body. In the skin, copper is involved in the synthesis and stabilization of extracellular matrix skin proteins and angiogenesis. This manuscript reviews clinical studies that show that the use of textile consumer and medical device products, embedded with microscopic copper oxide particles, improve the well-being of the skin. These include studies showing a) cure of athlete’s foot infections and improvement in skin elasticity, especially important for individuals suffering from diabetes; b) reduction of facial fine line and wrinkles; and c) enhancement of wound healing; by copper oxide embedded socks, pillowcases and wound dressings, respectively. The manuscript also reviews and discusses the mechanisms by which the presence of copper in these products improves skin well-being."


Manganese (as Manganese Sulfate)

Evaluation of Manganese (Mn+2) in Serum of Acne Patients

"This work aimed to determine the effect of manganese in acne patients. This study showed statistically decreased in manganese levels in acne patients in the range (0.0185-0.0496) mg/dl compared with the normal value (0.05-0.07) mg/dl. The design of the project included twenty acne patient (11males, 9 females) and (15) apparently as controls (8 males, 7 females) .Sex difference was obtained as rises for manganese concentration (P≤0.05) in females when compared with those of the male patients. The influence of treatment was studied, the data stated significant increase (P≤0.05), in treated acne patients when compared with those of the untreated."


Organic Turmeric Root Powder

Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence

"Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a commonly used spice throughout the world, has been shown to exhibit antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-neoplastic properties. Growing evidence shows that an active component of turmeric, curcumin, may be used medically to treat a variety of dermatologic diseases. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of both topical and ingested turmeric/curcumin to modulate skin health and function. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans that examined the relationship between products containing turmeric, curcumin, and skin health. A total of 234 articles were uncovered, and a total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. Nine studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, eight studies evaluated the effects of topical, and one study evaluated the effects of both ingested and topical application of turmeric/curcumin. Skin conditions examined include acne, alopecia, atopic dermatitis, facial photoaging, oral lichen planus, pruritus, psoriasis, radiodermatitis, and vitiligo. Ten studies noted statistically significant improvement in skin disease severity in the turmeric/curcumin treatment groups compared with control groups. Overall, there is early evidence that turmeric/curcumin products and supplements, both oral and topical, may provide therapeutic benefits for skin health. However, currently published studies are limited and further studies will be essential to better evaluate efficacy and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd."


Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care

Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease.


Organic Apple Cider Vinegar

"coming soon"

"coming soon"


Organic Ginger Root

"coming soon"

"coming soon"


Broccoli Sprout Extract (sulforaphane glucosinolate)

Rapid and Sustainable Detoxication of Airborne Pollutants by Broccoli Sprout Beverage: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial in China

"Broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can generate the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and other cytoprotective enzymes. A broccoli sprout-derived beverage providing daily doses of 600 μmol glucoraphanin and 40 μmol sulforaphane was evaluated for magnitude and duration of pharmacodynamic action in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Two hundred and ninety-one study participants were recruited from the rural He-He Township, Qidong, in the Yangtze River delta region of China, an area characterized by exposures to substantial levels of airborne pollutants. Exposure to air pollution has been associated with lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of the pollutants, benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde, were measured before and during the intervention using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid and sustained, statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01) increases in the levels of excretion of the glutathione-derived conjugates of benzene (61%), acrolein (23%), but not crotonaldehyde were found in those receiving broccoli sprout beverage compared with placebo. Excretion of the benzene-derived mercapturic acid was higher in participants who were GSTT1-positive compared to the null genotype, irrespective of study arm assignment. Measures of sulforaphane metabolites in urine indicated that bioavailability did not decline over the 12-week daily dosing period. Thus, intervention with broccoli sprouts enhances the detoxication of some airborne pollutants and may provide a frugal means to attenuate their associated long-term health risks."

"The sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts can help to clear your skin of those pesky pimples by supporting liver function (specifically, phase II). By supporting liver function, you’re much more capable of detoxifying both internal and external substances. In the case of acne, this would be excess estrogen, a hormone linked to increased sebum (oil), which can lead to breakouts. Therefore, cruciferous vegetables (and their sprouts) can definitely aid in preventing or reducing acne. (But again, if your issue is really intense, please seek medical help.)"


Lactobacillus paracasei

"The Role of Probiotics in Acne and Rosacea"

Through basic science as well as animal and human clinical trials, the evidence is growing for the use of probiotics in the treatment of acne. Acne formation is dependent upon several processes, including follicular hyperkeratinization, excess sebum production, Propionibacterium acnes colonization and an inflammatory cascade. The antimicrobial properties of probiotics as well as the modification of the skin microbiome may decrease levels of P. acnes on the skin. Additionally, successful acne outcomes are influenced by compliance with topical regimens, which can commonly cause skin barrier disruption, leading to dryness and irritation. Consequently, calming inflammation as well as maintaining skin hydration and barrier repair is of primary importance when treating acne. In this chapter, we discuss how probiotics affect several factors in the pathophysiology of acne development and can improve the treatment outcomes. Conclusition: In summary, oral and topical probiotics are emerging as an exciting treatment option or adjuvant treatment for acne. Although additional research needs to be performed, the clinical trials conducted so far have continued to provide evidence that probiotics can improve acne, along with multiple other inflammatory disorders, with very limited adverse effects. In the upcoming years, probiotic formulations have the potential to be a fundamental component of acne treatment and may augment the efficacy of current treatments today.


The effect of probiotics on immune regulation, acne, and photoaging

"Probiotics are live micro-organisms that provide a health benefit to the host. The role of probiotics in the management of disease, as well as immune modification, has recently experienced a renewed interest in society, as probiotics can be found in products ranging from yogurt to facial creams. In this article, we discuss the role of probiotics in the development of the immune system, the treatment of acne and rosacea, and protection against aging and photodamage. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Women's Dermatologic Society. This is an open access"


Lactobacillus acidophilus

Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging

"coming soon"


Hyaluronic acid (as Sodium Hyaluronate)

Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging

"While hyaluronic acid can't fill in visible acne scars, it can help reduce redness and the visible appearance of acne. In addition, hyaluronic acid can help protect the skin, which is especially helpful for acne-prone skin, as it typically doesn't have a very strong lipid barrier. So if you're looking for an addition to your acne skin care routine that won't make your acne flare up, it's worth considering hyaluronic acid."


Green Tea Leaf Extract

Does supplementation with green tea extract improve acne in post-adolescent women? A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

"Background: Green tea is believed to have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of acne.

Objective: To examine the effects of a decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE), providing a daily dose of 856 mg of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) upon women with post-adolescent acne.

Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from May 2012 through October 2013. A final group of 80 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 1500 mg of decaffeinated GTE or placebo (cellulose) daily for 4 weeks. Inflammatory lesion counts were used as the major outcome measurement. At baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment, anthropometric measurements, fasting glucose levels and a lipid profile were measured from both groups.

Results: Sixty-four of 80 women, from 25 to 45 years of age with moderate-to-severe acne completed the study. Statistically significant differences were noted in inflammatory lesion counts distributed on the nose, periorally and on the chin between the two groups. However, there were no significant differences between groups for total lesion counts. Within-group comparison revealed that the GTE group had significant reductions in inflammatory lesions distributed on the forehead and cheek, and significant reductions in total lesion counts. GTE resulted in significant reductions in total cholesterol levels within the GTE group.

Conclusions: GTE resulted in significant reductions in lesions located on the nose, perioral area and chin. More research is required to determine whether a decaffeinated GTE standardized for EGCG content will provide clinical benefits in women with post-adolescent acne."


Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

"Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies) and tea, type not specified (two studies). Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands. "


Neem Leaf Powder

Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment

"Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways."


Organic Spirulina Powder

In Vitro Effectiveness of Microspheres Based on Silk Sericin and Chlorella vulgaris or Arthrospira platensis for Wound Healing Applications

"In Vitro Effectiveness of Microspheres Based on Silk Sericin and Chlorella vulgaris or Arthrospira platensis for Wound Healing Applications Bari E, et al. In Vitro Effectiveness of Microspheres Based on Silk Sericin and Chlorella vulgaris or Arthrospira platensis for Wound Healing Applications. Materials. 2017;10(9):983. doi:10.3390/ma10090983. Some natural compounds have recently been widely employed in wound healing applications due to their biological properties. One such compound is sericin, which is produced by Bombix mori, while active polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins are synthetized by Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis microalgae. Our hypothesis was that sericin, as an optimal bioactive polymeric carrier for microencapsulation process, could also improve the regenerative effect of the microalgae. A solvent-free extraction method and spray drying technique were combined to obtain five formulations, based on algal extracts (C. vulgaris and A. platensis, Chl and Art, respectively) or silk sericin (Ser) or their mixtures (Chl-Ser and Art-Ser). The spray drying was a suitable method to produce microspheres with similar dimensions, characterized by collapsed morphology with a rough surface. Art and Art-Ser showed higher antioxidant properties than other formulations. All microspheres resulted in cytocompatibility on fibroblasts until 1.25 mg/mL and promoted cell migration and the complete wound closure; this positive effect was further highlighted after treatment with Art and Art-Ser. To our surprize the combination of sericin to Art did not improve the microalgae extract efficacy, at least in our experimental conditions."


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Organic Chlorella

Inhibition of lipase and inflammatory mediators by Chlorella lipid extracts for antiacne treatment

"Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its treatment is challenging due to the multifactorial etiology and emergence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. This study was focused to reduce antibiotics usage and find an alternate therapeutic source for treating acne. Lipid extracts of six Chlorella species were tested for inhibition of lipase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytokine production using P. acnes (Microbial Type Culture Collection 1951). Lipase inhibitory assay was determined by dimercaprol Tributyrate - 5, 5'- dithiobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid method and ROS production assay was performed using nitro-blue tetrazolium test. The anti-inflammatory activity of algal lipid extracts was determined by in vitro screening method based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of lipid extracts were determined by microdilution method, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Chlorella ellipsoidea has the highest lipase inhibitory activity with 61.73% inhibition, followed by Chlorella vulgaris (60.31%) and Chlorella protothecoides (58.9%). Lipid extracts from C. protothecoides and C. ellipsoidea has significantly reduced the ROS production by 61.27% and 58.34% respectively. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α showed the inhibition ranging from 58.39% to 78.67%. C. vulgaris has exhibited the MICvalue of 10 μg/ml followed by C. ellipsoidea, C. protothecoides and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (20 μg/ml). FAME analysis detected 19 fatty acids of which 5 were saturated fatty acids, and 14 were unsaturated fatty acids ranging from C14 to C24. The results suggest that lipid extracts of Chlorella species has significant inhibitory activity on P. acnes by inhibiting lipase activity. Further, anti-inflammatory reaction caused by the pathogen could be reduced by the inhibiting the production of ROS and inflammatory mediators TNF-α and exposes new frontiers on the antiacne activities of Chlorella lipid extracts."


Inhibition of lipase and inflammatory mediators by Chlorella lipid extracts for antiacne treatment

"Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its treatment is challenging due to the multifactorial etiology and emergence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. This study was focused to reduce antibiotics usage and find an alternate therapeutic source for treating acne. Lipid extracts of six Chlorella species were tested for inhibition of lipase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytokine production using P. acnes (Microbial Type Culture Collection 1951). Lipase inhibitory assay was determined by dimercaprol Tributyrate - 5, 5'- dithiobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid method and ROS production assay was performed using nitro-blue tetrazolium test. The anti-inflammatory activity of algal lipid extracts was determined by in vitro screening method based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of lipid extracts were determined by microdilution method, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Chlorella ellipsoidea has the highest lipase inhibitory activity with 61.73% inhibition, followed by Chlorella vulgaris (60.31%) and Chlorella protothecoides (58.9%). Lipid extracts from C. protothecoides and C. ellipsoidea has significantly reduced the ROS production by 61.27% and 58.34% respectively. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α showed the inhibition ranging from 58.39% to 78.67%. C. vulgaris has exhibited the MICvalue of 10 μg/ml followed by C. ellipsoidea, C. protothecoides and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (20 μg/ml). FAME analysis detected 19 fatty acids of which 5 were saturated fatty acids, and 14 were unsaturated fatty acids ranging from C14 to C24. The results suggest that lipid extracts of Chlorella species has significant inhibitory activity on P. acnes by inhibiting lipase activity. Further, anti-inflammatory reaction caused by the pathogen could be reduced by the inhibiting the production of ROS and inflammatory mediators TNF-α and exposes new frontiers on the antiacne activities of Chlorella lipid extracts."


Organic Aristotelia (Maqui Berry)

POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MAQUI (Aristotelia chilensis [MOLINA] STUNTZ) DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION IN CENTRAL CHILE

"Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benets of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and avonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP] assay) of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple). The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set) in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP). This study constitutes the rst advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity."


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